Kolektif Bellek: İki Farklı Kültür
Jeffrey K. Olick

Öz

Kolektif belleğin neresi kolektif? Kolektif bellekle ilgili iki farklı kavram birbiriyle yarışıyor; bunlardan biri toplumsal bir çerçeve içinde yer alan bireysel belleklerin bir potada toplanmasını, diğeri ise kendine özgü toplumsal bir olguyu ifade eder. Ancak bu ikisi arasındaki fark konuyla ilgili yazına nadiren dâhil edilir. Bu makale kolektif belleğin bireysel ve toplumsal kavranışları arasındaki fark ve ilişki üzerine bir kuramsallaştırma çabasıdır. Bu anlayışlardan ilki nörolojik ve bilişsel faktörlerle birlikte psikolojik etkenleri dikkate almakta, ancak hem beyin haricindeki bellek teknolojilerini hem de bilişsel ve hatta nörolojik yolların kısmen içinde oluştuğu toplumsal süreçleri bir kenarda bırakmaktadır. İkincisi ise, kamusal ve kişisel belleğin toplumsal ve kültürel örüntüler haline gelme biçimlerine vurgu yapsa da, bunların kısmen psikolojik dinamiklerle meydana gelmesinin hangi yollarla mümkün olduğu konusunu göz ardı etmektedir. Bu makale travmatik olay örnekleri üzerinden giderek bireyselci ve kolektif yaklaşımlar arasındaki olası uzlaşmaya yeni ve çok-boyutlu bir strateji getirmeyi önermektedir.

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