POPÜLİST SİYASETTE HEGEMONİK ERKEKLİK VE HEGEMONİK KADINLIK: MARINE LE PEN VE POPÜLİST RADİKAL SAĞIN CİNSİYETİ
Feyda Sayan Cengiz

Öz

Popülist radikal sağ siyasetin yükselişinde, liderlerin üslup ve siyasi performanslarının rolü, popülizm araştırmalarının gündeminde merkezi önem kazanmıştır. Halkı, hem “elitlere” hem de dışarıdan gelecek “tehditlere”, özellikle de göçe ve küreselleşmenin etkilerine karşı koruma iddiasındaki popülist radikal sağ liderlerin kullandıkları siyasi üslup; toplumsal cinsiyetli siyasi performansların ve söylemlerin üzerine inşa edilmiştir. Bu performanslar içinde, hegemonik erkeklik performansları merkezi rol oynar. Ancak bu performansları sergileyenler, yalnızca erkek liderler değildir. Kadın popülist radikal sağ liderlerin siyasi üslup ve performansları, toplumsal cinsiyetin popülist radikal sağı yapılandıran etkisini tartışmak için verimli bir zemin sağlar. Bu çalışmada, Fransız Rassamblement National partisinin kadın lideri Marine Le Pen’in siyasi üslup ve performansı, hegemonik erkeklik ve hegemonik kadınlık kavramlarının dönüşen ve dinamik unsurları göz önünde bulundurularak, toplumsal cinsiyet perspektifinden tartışılacaktır. Bu amaçla, Le Pen’in 2017’deki Cumhurbaşkanlığı seçimi için düzenlediği kampanyada yaptığı konuşmalar, kullandığı yazılı ve görsel kampanya materyalleri, söylem analizi yöntemiyle çözümlenecektir. 

Anahtar Sözcükler

hegemonik erkeklik; kadın politikacı; popülist radikal sağ; popülizm; Fransa
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17572/mj2021.1.269288

Kaynakça

Achin, C. ve Léveque, S. (2017). Jupiter is back: Gender in the 2017 French presidential campaign. French Politics, 15 (3), 279–89.

Akkerman, T. (2015). Gender and the radical right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis of policy agendas. Patterns of Prejudice, 49 (1-2), 37-60.

Aslanidis, P. (2016). Is populism an ideology? A refutation and a new perspective. Political Studies, 64(15), 88-104.

Bastow, S. (2018). The Front National under Marine Le Pen: A mainstream political party? French Politics, 16 (1), 19-37.

Bossetta, M. (2017). Fighting fire with fire: Mainstream adoption of the populist political style in the 2014 Europe debates between Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 19(4), 715-734.

Bozok, M. (2011). Masculinities: Questions and Answers. İstanbul: SOGEP.

Brubaker, R. (2017). Why Populism? Theory and Society, 46(5), 357–385.

Campus, D. (2017). Marine Le Pen’s peopolisation: An asset for leadership image-building? French Politics, 15, 147-165.

Connell, R. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ekşi, B. ve Wood, E. (2019). Right-wing populism as gendered performance: Janus-faced masculinity in the leadership of Vladimir Putin and Recep T. Erdogan. Theory and Society, 48 (5), 733-751.

Ekström, M., Patrona, M. ve Thornborrow, J. (2018). Right-wing populism and the dynamics of style: a discourse-analytic perspective on mediated political performances. Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 1-11.

Erdoğan, E. ve Erçetin, T. (2019). Popülist Liderlerinin Başarısına Medya Sistemleri Perspektifinden Bir Bakış: Birleşik Krallık, Hollanda ve Türkiye Karşılaştırması. Moment Dergi, 6(1), 38-74.

Farris, S. (2017) In the Name of Women’s Rights: The Rise of Femonationalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Fekete, L. (2006). Enlightened fundamentalism? Immigration, feminism and the right. Race and Class, 48(2), 1-22.

Front National (2017) Les 144 engagements présidentiels. Erişim: 12 Aralık 2020, https://www.rassemblementnational.fr/pdf/144-engagements.pdf

Geva, D. (2020). Daughter, Mother, Captain: Marine Le Pen, Gender, and Populism in the French National Front. Social Politics 27(1), 1-26.

Gibson, K.L. ve Heyse A.L. (2010) “The Difference Between a Hockey Mom and a Pit Bull”: Sarah Palin's Faux Maternal Persona and Performance of Hegemonic Masculinity at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Communication Quarterly, 58:3, 235-256.

Katsambekis, G. (2020). Constructing ‘the people’ of populism: A critique of the ideational approach from a discursive perspective. Journal of Political Ideologies, DOI: 10.1080/13569317.2020.1844372

Kinvall, C. (2015). Borders and Fear: Insecurity, Gender and the Far Right in Europe. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 23(4), 514-529.

Le Pen, M. (2006). A contre flots. Paris: Grancher.

Le Pen, M. (2016). France’s Next Revolution? A Conversation With Marine Le Pen. Foreign Affairs, 95(6), 2-8.

Löffler, M. (2020). Populist attraction: the symbolic uses of masculinities in the Austrian general election campaign 2017. NORMA, 15(1), 10-25.

Mayer, N. (2013). From Jean-Marie to Marine Le Pen: Electoral change on the far-right. Parliamentary Affairs, 66 (1), 160–78.

Mayer, N. (2015). The closing of the radical right gender gap in France? French Politics, 13 (4), 391–414.

Mayer, S., Ajanovic, E. ve Sauer, B. (2014). Intersections and inconsistencies: framing gender in right-wing populist discourses in Austria. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 22 (4), 250-266.

Mellström, U. (2016) In the time of masculinist political revival. NORMA, 11(3), 135-138.

Mepschen, P., Duyvendak, J.W., Tonkens, E.H. (2010). Sexual Politics, Orientalism and Multicultural Citizenship in the Netherlands. Sociology, 44 (5): 662–679.

Merrick, J. (4 Mayıs 2017) The French presidential election spells trouble for the EU -- whoever wins. CNN. Erişim: 5 Şubat 2021, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/05/04/europe/france-election-bad-for-eu/index.html

Messerschmidt, J.W. (2019). Hidden in plain sight: On the omnipresence of hegemonic masculinities. Masculinities: A Journal of Identity and Culture, 12, 14-29.

Moffitt, B. (2016). The global rise of populism: Performance, political style and representation. California: Stanford University Press.

Moffitt, B. ve Tormey, S. (2014). Rethinking populism: politics, mediatisation and political style. Political Studies, 62 (2), 381-397.

Mudde, C.(2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition 39(4), 541–63.

Mudde, C. (2007). Populist radical right parties in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mudde, C. ve Kaltwasser, C.R. (2013). Exclusionary vs. inclusionary populism: Comparing contemporary Europe and Latin America. Government and Opposition, 48(2), 147-174.

Mudde, C. ve Kaltwasser, C.R. (2018). Studying populism in comparative perspective: reflections on the contemporary and future research agenda. Comparative Political Studies, 51(13), 1667-1693.

Norocel, O.C. (2013). Our people- a tight-knit family under the same roof: A critical study of gendered conceptual metaphors at work in radical right populism. Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi. Helsinki: Helsinki Üniversitesi.

Norris, P. Ve Inglehart, R. (2019). Cultural backlash: Trump, Brexit and authoritarian populism. Cambridge University Press.

Saç, S. (2017). Front National: Radikal (Popülist) Sağdan (Ilımlı) Neo-Popülist Sağa. Mülkiye Dergisi, 41(1), 259-290.

Schippers, M. (2007). Recovering the feminine other: Masculinity, femininity, and gender hegemony. Theory and Society, 36 (1): 85–102.

Scrinzi, F. (2017a). A “New” National Front? Gender, Religion, Secularism and the French Populist Radical Right. Michaela Köttig, Renate Bitzan, Andrea Petö (der.) içinde, Gender and Far Right Politics in Europe (s. 127-140). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Scrinzi, F. (2017b). Gender and women in the Front National discourse and policy. From ‘mothers of the nation’ to ‘working mothers’? New Formations: A Journal of Culture/Theory/Politics, 91: 87-101.

Shields, J. 2013. Marine Le Pen and the ‘New’ FN: A change of style or of substance? Parliamentary Affairs, 66 (1), 179–196.

Snipes, A., & Mudde, C. (2020). “France's (kinder, gentler) extremist”: Marine Le Pen, intersectionality, and media framing of female populist radical right leaders. Politics & Gender, 16(2), 438-470.

Stockemer, D. (2017). The Front National in France. Cham: Springer.

Stockemer, D. ve Barisione, M. (2017). The ‘new’ discourse of the Front National under Marine Le Pen: A slight change with a big impact. European Journal of Communication, 32(2), 100-115.

Van Zoonen, L. (2006). The personal, the political and the popular. A woman’s guide to celebrity politics. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 9(3): 287–301.

Vieten, U. M. (2016). Far right populism and women: The normalization of gendered anti-Muslim racism and gendered culturalism in the Netherlands. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 37(6), 621-636.

Wodak, R. (2015). The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean. London: Sage.